[BSW] Orchid Decline Paper

Kathy Bilton kathy at fred.net
Sun May 4 19:37:54 BST 2014

---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Sat, 3 May 2014 13:23:08 +0000
From: Rod Simmons <Rod.Simmons at alexandriava.gov>
To: "armn at googlegroups.com" <armn at googlegroups.com>
Subject: Orchid Decline Paper

An excellent paper from our friends Wes Knapp and Dick Wiegand at the
Maryland Wildlife and Heritage Service:

       From: "Knapp, Wesley M." <WKnapp at dnr.state.md.us>
       Date: May 2, 2014 7:27:54 AM EDT
       To: Undisclosed recipients:;
       Subject: Orchid Decline Paper

       Friends and Colleagues:

       For the past few years Dick Wiegand and I’ve been writing up a
       paper detailing the decline of the Orchids of the Catoctin
       Mountains of Frederick County Maryland.  I am honored that this
       paper has been published through the international conservation
       journal Biodiversity and Conservation. The results of this
       41-year study show a precipitous decline in 19 of the 21 species
       of Orchids known from the Catoctin Mountains .  Annual census
       data at 167 sites from throughout the Catoctin Mountains on
       protected and unprotected lands (private and public) show a loss
       of three species from the study area, a decline of >90 %
       (ranging from 99 to 91 %) in seven species, and a decline of <90
       % (ranging from 51 to 87 %) for nine species. We tested the
       hypothesis that this decline is due to intensified herbivory by
       white-tailed deer. The overall orchid census data is
       significantly inversely-correlated (R = -0.93) to the
       white-tailed deer harvest data of Frederick County (a surrogate
       for population size), which includes the entirety of the study

       A link to this paper is below. This is an Open Access paper so
       anyone can download, read, and reproduce it. This paper
       documents a trend many have witnessed in adjacent State and
       regions. Please pass this paper on to our various conservation


       All the best,


       Wesley Knapp
       Maryland Department of Natural Resources
       Wildlife and Heritage Service
       PO Box 68 (909 Wye Mills Rd)
       Wye Mills, MD 21679

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